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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

克普克写道,分析师们常常“认为新兴市场危机易发性的根源在于制度薄弱,这使得这些国家易受经济、金融不稳定的影响。”

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而在进口一侧,不论以人民币还是美元计,情况都愈发糟糕。
Track field;hand ball;cycling;track racin;racing cycle;mountain bike race;Bicycle Motocross;horsemanship;football;Beach Volleyball.
夏奇拉

它曾经是一家傲视业界、富可敌国的投资公司,能从世界一流的金融机构源源不断地获得贷款。它用借来的钱大把大把地押注,购买资产,获得更高的回报。但当这些资产的市值下跌,贷款机构开始要求更多的抵押品,最后这家公司竟然轰然倒塌。很多惊魂未定的贷款机构全面收紧贷款要求,造成整体的信贷紧缩。
年龄:33岁
Major pharmaceutical companies, working with the American Cancer Society, will steeply discount cancer drugs for patients in African countries. Cancer kills 450,000 people across the continent each year, but many types here are among the most treatable: breast, cervical and prostate tumors.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

“摇号炒房”为哪般? 这不是抢房是“抢钱”

Now 12 games into the quadrennial tournament, the World Cup is averaging 3.42 goals per game. Nigeria-Iran promises to bring that average down, but as long there is at least one goal in that game or the United States-Ghana match, the World Cup will head into its sixth day averaging at least 3.0 goals per game. The last time a World Cup averaged that many goals for an entire tournament was 1958 when Pele burst onto the scene and the 12 teams combined to average 3.60 over just 35 total matches.
But because I can’t help but hope that with the end of “Mad Men” comes the end of a period in fashion that has seen designers become trapped in the past to an almost stifling degree. At least the past as it looked in the 1960s (which in the beginning, let us not forget, looked a lot like the late 1950s) and early ’70s.
“现在,我只给她稍微擦了点唇膏,涂了点指甲油。”

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

3. Your boss received your résumé from a contact of a contact。
Today's and tomorrow's technology sits on top of multiple layers, every one of which is changing and has to inter-operate with others. This makes our gadgets, the internet of things, phones and laptops unstable. And it makes consumers irritated. How many of your apps actually work--and actually make life easier, faster or more fun? I'd expect to see consumer cynicism grow, as delight is overtaken by disappointment. This will put pressure on hardware and software developers to deliver that most boring of qualities: reliability.
n. 改进,改善

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 鉴于之前许多邦女郎在007电影中如昙花般一现,随后便星途黯淡,玛尔洛和经纪人正努力确保她与众多一流演员合作,正如邦德电影是用来为她的国际演艺生涯铺路一样。
  • 推行O2O 赢得建材采购商青睐的关键在于一条龙服务
  • What would he try for his solo move: "Sweet Creature" and "Ever Since New York" are intimate acoustic ballads; while "Kiwi" lets him strut his Oasis-style self at top volume. "Two Ghosts" is a break-up lament .
  • 石材行业在风暴下还能挺多久?
  • 武汉“抢才”半年吸引14万大学毕业生落户
  • The private Facebook group chat that led to offers of admission being rescinded was named, at one point, "Harvard memes for horny bourgeois teens", the Crimson reported.
    “I am so overwhelmed and elated that fur has been banned from London Fashion Week! Progress!” Faith wrote.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 整装风席卷家装行业 求变成未来发展关键词, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

LED照明实体店的变革之路

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

钢铁1.6元不如白菜价 钢铁电商却逆势杀入

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Actuaries put a financial value on risk for instance, the chances of a hurricane destroying a beachfront home or the long-term liabilities of a pension system. In a world awash with risks of the natural and manmade variety, the profession is booming, says Tony Lee, publisher of CareerCast.com. In addition, he says, 'there's a severe shortage of actuaries, ' so wages are rising. (The median salary for actuaries in 2010 was $87, 650, according to the Labor Department.)
    A report by human resources website Zhaopin released recently found that only 3.1 percent of students expecting to graduate in July said they will start their own business, down from 6.3 percent in 2015.
  • 200911/90348.shtml
    经济学人智库表示,尽管没有一个北美城市进入前20名,但是纽约的生活成本相对于其他美国城市有所上升。纽约与洛杉矶并列第27位成为美国最贵城市。
    美国仍是最具价值品牌大国,2016年该国10强品牌的品牌价值增长10%,至1.3万亿美元。以沃达丰(Vodafone)为首的英国10强品牌的品牌价值缩水8%。以德国软件集团SAP为首的欧洲大陆10强品牌的品牌价值增长5%。最后,以腾讯(Tencent)、中国移动和阿里巴巴(Alibaba)为首的亚洲10强品牌的品牌价值达3600亿美元,仅比欧洲大陆和英国10强品牌的品牌价值总和低10%。
    人们的担忧涵盖了各个领域,从全球问题(比如俄罗斯试图影响2016年美国总统选举),到地方问题(比如担心用户淹没在通知和新闻推送中,造成心理健康问题和生产率损失)。
    2) I Trust Your Judgment: Translation: “You have my permission. I believe in you. Now, go make it happen.” Feels pretty uplifting to hear that, doesn’t it? And I’ll bet you’d do almost anything to please someone who makes you feel that way. Your employees and peers are no different.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 白中介崛起 链家网推《白皮书》促行业规范
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 广州去年一手住宅成交减少三成

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

['elim?nt]
重点单词
Nicole Kidman had daughter Sunday Rose at age 40, with her husband, the country singer Keith Urban. 妮可·基德曼40岁时和其丈夫,乡村歌手凯斯·厄本生下女儿桑迪·
尽管中国在设计制造能与波音737或空客A320媲美的大飞机上仍有很长的路要走,但发展趋势很显著。中国航空工业正走向一个崭新的发展阶段并不断迈向成熟。The first flight of the Comac C919. Credit: Comac
Company: (Wonderbag) Natural Balance
The U.S. is set to add nearly 3 million jobs in 2014 — the biggest increase since 1999. The burst in job creation, expected to continue in 2015, is sure to fuel consumer spending. So, too, will a plunge in gasoline prices that's given households extra cash to spare on other goods and services. See: Americans saved $14 billion as gasoline prices declined in 2014.
Sport dominated the trending searches, with Euro 2012 and Olympic tickets showing the biggest rises in interest ahead of Houston and the Duchess of Cambridge.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • James Bond Themes 3. "Skyfall" by Adele
  • 板式定制家具 在拉萨家居建材定制中一枝独秀
  • 根据周一发布的年度调查报告,如今实现澳大利亚梦的成本急剧上升,悉尼和墨尔本超过大多数欧美城市,跻身世界最贵城市前五名。
    6. Miranda Lambert “Platinum” (RCA Nashville) Ms. Lambert went from plucky upstart to glittery country royalty in next to no time, but with “Platinum,” her best album, she walks that line with breezy authority. By turns sentimental and profane, with an ideal ratio of gloss to grit, it’s a reminder of her irreducible strengths, and a dare to anyone who’d undervalue them.
  • 北漂青年用力扎根:花掉一半儿工资来租房
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • In global health, 2016 will be remembered as the year a little known virus made a major impact. It felt strangely familiar, but this time it wasn't Ebola making headlines around the world, it was Zika - a mosquito-borne virus being linked to a huge spike in the number of babies in Brazil born with brain defects.
    I once had an advisor that said to me when I expressed fear of a difficult class, "Do you want to get an education or not?"
  • After an investigation, Rongchang police arrested Zhou on April 29 for endangering public security, according to the Chongqing Morning Post.
    美国在2014年的新增工作岗位被设定为300万个—这是自1999年以来最大的增加量。新增工作岗位的增加预计在2015年将会对得到持续,这将确保消费者支出得到持续的动力;同时汽油价格的下降也将为家庭支出节省额外的开支用以购买其他的商品和服务。详见:汽油价格在2014年下降美国将会节省140亿美元开支。
  • 公司:技术服务公司Binary Group
    v. 抢劫,掠夺
  • 8.A New iPhone
    这种情况下,湖人从他们的头等交易品那里获得了足够的回报,让他们的年轻球员诸如丹吉洛-拉塞尔和布兰登-英格拉姆准备好在比赛关键时刻承担更重的责任,同时铁了心摆滥准备迎接UCLA新星朗佐-鲍尔的到来。
    Job-searching employees often send these subtle signals without expecting their managers to notice, Kay says. But they do。
  • 瑞茜·威瑟斯彭(Reese Witherspoon)刚出道时大胆尝试不同戏路的演出,据报道,她曾努力将因影片《一往直前》(Walk the Line)获得的最佳女主角的奖杯制成门环或项链。但这两种方案都没能得以实现,现在,小金人就站在她的客厅里。
    [ru:t]
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 一线城市家居卖场面临整合 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

黄改荣委员:扩大医保支付覆盖面

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

调控显成效 安徽省上半年房产投资销售双增长

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

全国建材家居景气指数10月份略涨 专家预判将下滑

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

北京积分落户指标初核结果今起可查

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 7.M·A·S·H Star Never Signed his Contract
  • The world's first flying bicycle flew on November 9, 1961, when Derek Pigott of the University of Southampton flew in a bicycle with an airplane-like body. It was called the Southampton University Man Powered Aircraft (sumpac). Derek furiously pedaled the air-bike to get it off the ground. It then flew 1.8 meters (about 6 ft) above the ground over a distance of 64 meters (210 ft). While the flight was short and slow, it still does not change the fact that it was the first bicycle to fly and at the same time, the first human-powered flight.
  • 多地摸底首付贷 台上转入地下多种资金来源难控

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 鉴于FIFA世界杯将于2018年在俄罗斯举办,届时的旅游成本会大大提高,所以选择在2017年去可谓是明智之举。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 高位且不断上升的美国利率可能很快成为新兴市场危机的驱动因素:此类条件可能导致新兴市场借贷成本升高,还有资本外流以及金融部门冒险意愿下降。
    斯德哥尔摩经济学院(Stockholm School of Economics)是今年排行榜上的大赢家,该学校的排名攀升16个位次,排在第28位,不仅排名晋升速度为年度最快,而且扭转了去年排名下滑11位的局面。
    支持:该片在多伦多国际电影节上获得人民选择奖,这个奖项通常是一个重要的风向标。
  • 1月,因本田未按要求向美国国家公路交通安全管理局汇报各类车辆上发生的1700多起伤亡事故,美国政府向该公司开具7000万美元的高额罚单。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 现在,我们来说说2010年。
  • 连平:2017年房价涨幅放缓 暴跌可能不大
  • “An employee baked a cake with her resignation letter written on top.”

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 3月 楼市回归“居住时代”
  • Household substance abuse
  • 东莞家具制造企业亏损面近两成 企业纷纷试水互联网+
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

300万元已买不到市中心二手电梯两房?

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 防止“房抵贷”“首付贷”兴风作浪
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 广东出台29条促消费新政 采取多种方式增加租赁住房用地有效供应
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

但是Gitanjali的便携发明,可以通过一个与手机app连接的传感器,就得出一个确切、及时的分析。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

美国太空探索技术公司在航天器充分回收方面取得重大进展
时尚界通常视历史为潜在灵感的百宝囊,可供随时汲取、混合搭配。即便如此,目前这一阶段对历史的依赖也太过极端。
下面是开发一个商业平台时需要考虑的主要元素。这些元素可以帮助任何新公司制定明智的策略:
英国会是七国集团(G7)中经济增长最慢的国家吗?
Upgrades to the country's industrial structure in which labor-intensive industries are being moved out of metropolitan areas contributed greatly to the demographic change, Peng Xizhe, dean of the School of Social Development and Public Policy at Shanghai-based Fudan University, told the Global Times on Tuesday.
幸好这类单曲只是《名誉》这张专辑的一部分。在《Dress》(《连衣裙》)这首歌中,她沉醉于令人激动的新恋情里;在《New Year’s Day》(《新年》)这首歌中,她试着弄明白聚会结束后她还拥有什么。
12. Is there something I am clinging to? We don’t always realize when we’re clinging to something harmful when it feels safe and familiar, whether it is an unfulfilling job, an unhealthy relationship, or a stagnant way of life. Recognize if you are clinging to something that isn’t serving you and work on taking small steps towards change and release.
《人物》评选的电影史上35位美人(1)
A sub-index tracking activity at larger enterprises softened 0.7 points to 53.1, while mid-sized companies fell 1.3 points to 49.9, indicating slight contraction. That for smaller manufacturers fell 0.4 points to 49, indicating worsening contraction.
由于欧元危机的影响,希腊,意大利,葡萄牙以及西班牙的排名大幅下滑。然而下滑幅度最大的是由于近期的政治危机影响的埃及,缅甸,和沙特阿拉伯。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

绿色建材望受益新型城镇化 概念股受益程度不一

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 巴尼汤普森(Barney Thompson)是法律记者
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 但是随着西方制造业和工业的衰落,不少工薪阶层市镇也随之衰败,父母和祖父母们发现,下一代已经不能拥有他们曾经拥有的机会了。
  • 时隔逾3年半 中国商品房销售面积首现下跌
  • 数据显示,在欧洲外的最受游客欢迎20大目的地中,游客的消费主要用于购物,而非就餐。尽管其中很多是世界著名的美食之都。
  • 涂料市场观察:“大数据时代”的企业竞争格局
  • 90%的学生认为他们大学在创业方面的指导将有助于他们将来的事业。此外,他们还对鼓励创业的政策表示赞赏。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 大众旅游时代下 民宿短租发展的N个方向
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Inclusive and green finance
  • Similar to quick LinkedIn overhauling, Foss says employers will likely notice if you abruptly go from tweeting cat GIFs and "Game of Thrones" spoilers to posting thoughtful, industry-focused content and participating in job-search Twitter chats. These are generally good moves for your job search, but bad ones for keeping it under wraps, so again, take it slow。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

王冬雷调查步步紧逼 吴长江违规指控逐步坐实

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